Gilds and Gildhalls of Suffolk

 

A note on terminology: I have used the spelling gild in accordance with reference 1 to section 32 of the Historical Atlas of Suffolk, namely “the spelling GILD has been preferred because it was used by earlier writers, and because it helps to distinguish social and religious gilds from those which were occupational and urban”.  Almost all Suffolk gilds were of the former type, whereas guilds are most commonly associated in people’s minds with trade and craft guilds.  There is no universal convention.


Introduction


The buildings of Suffolk include some fine gildhalls.  Some of the most famous are those at Eye, Hadleigh, Lavenham and Laxfield.  These are, of course, included in the Pevsner guide.  There are many more in various states of preservation, others where there is doubt about them and others yet to be discovered.  But what were the gilds for which these halls were built?


Many Victorians offered histories of the gilds, some conflicting, but where there is doubt I have tended towards the views of H F Westlake.  This is partly because he has published on Suffolk gildhalls in the Proceedings of the Suffolk Institute of Archealogy and History (PSIAH) and partly because his more readable book was published towards the end of many others on the subject, references some of them and is therefore likely to have filtered out the more unlikely views.  Sources of information are listed in the bibliography at the end.


Any corrections or further information on the subject would be welcome by e-mail to the address found here.


The origin of gilds


There is some agreement amongst experts that the origins of gilds go back to Anglo-Saxon frith-gilds, which were associations of ten townsmen or villagers formed to maintain the King’s peace.  In the earliest days they had responsibilities that were entirely secular but by the 10th century, in the reign of Aethelstan (925 – 940), obligations of a religious nature appeared that started to link the gilds with the parish church.


Within a hundred years the brethren of different frith-gilds had begun to combine together to form associations of a purely religious character.  The earliest known example of this new type of gild dates from the reign of Canute (1017 – 1035).  Orcy, a friend of the king, founded a gild among the frith-gildsmen of Abbotsbury in Dorset and endowed it with a hall.  Shortly afterwards (1072 and 1107) records exist of gilds in Exeter and the surrounding area and at the time of the Domesday Book two gilds at Canterbury were recorded.


The broad purpose of parish gilds was to provide the spiritual insurance policy of a decent burial and intercession (prayer) after one’s death.  Other functions included fraternity, conviviality and holding agreeable social events including communal feasting, as well as what we might now call accident insurance and financial loans.


There was a parallel development of craft and trade guilds from similar origins to those of the religious and parish gilds.


For local context, remember that the Kingdom of East Anglia was only consolidated in the later Anglo Saxon period in the 7th Century under the Wuffinga dynasty and the existing framework of towns and villages mainly became established in the four centuries before the Norman Conquest.  By this time the county of Suffolk was already an identifiable administrative entity, based on the original southern territory (allegedly South folk) of the Kingdom of East Anglia.  In this period Churches were constructed in almost all settlements such that by 1086 over 400 were recorded in the county.  The earliest recorded Suffolk gild, the Fraternity of the Clerks of Glemsford located in the Church of St Mary at Bury St Edmunds, claimed to have come into being in the reign of Canute and certainly received some sort of constitution from Abbott Baldwin in the time of Edward the Confessor (1042 – 1066).


Purgatory and Indulgences


Westlake says that no one can understand the life of the Middle Ages without realising the quite extraordinary importance attached to the doctrine of Purgatory, and the efficacy of prayer and alms as a means of deliverance therefrom.  Purgatory may be summarised as a halfway point between Heaven and Hell where a person’s sins are purged to make them worthy for Heaven.  The prayers of the living can shorten a soul’s stay in Purgatory so it is good to pray for the dead.  Reserves of left over grace from the Saints, who went straight to Heaven, could be purchased as indulgences to accelerate release from Purgatory.  In the mid-16th century Henry VIII put a stop to Purgatory, praying for the dead and purchasing indulgences – and most of the religious and parish gilds were swept away with them (see also Country Gilds below).


The Gilds of Corpus Christi


The feast of Corpus Christi was founded about 1264 by Pope Urban IV.  It was to be celebrated on the Thursday after Trinity Sunday by a procession.  Indulgences were granted to those who took part and gilds soon began to be formed with the special object of celebrating it.  The first one with a remaining record was in Norwich in 1287.  Another was formed in Bury St Edmunds in 1317.  Evidence of the celebration of Corpus Christi in England is sparse and disputed but evidence is available of many gilds devoted to the purpose, including in Suffolk.


The Black Death


The Black Death (mainly 1348/9 but also 1361, 1369 and 1407) halved the population of England from 4 to 2 million.  This increased the price of labour and decreased the price of land and as a result marked a revolution in social and economic life with a similar major effect on gilds.  Churches bereft of priest and people will have lost their gilds and no record remains.  It is frequently noted that Norfolk lost two thirds of its clergy, that in Norwich 60,000 died and that the population of London was reduced to 35,000.


In the aftermath of the Black Death there were strong undercurrents of dissatisfaction and revolt in the population at large.  The re-forming of parish gilds in these circumstances may have aroused royal suspicion that seditious societies were being formed under the guise of religious purposes and in 1389 Richard II called for much detail about gilds.  The reason remains unknown and, sedition aside, may have been with an eye to taxation.  Returns only survive for 13 places in Suffolk describing about 40 gilds.  These are listed in pp 225 – 230 of The Parish Gilds of Medieval England by Westlake.


Country gilds


The gilds of the 15th and early 16th centuries were numerous and it was an exception for a Church not to have a gild associated with it and in many cases a village would have several gilds.  Their objects were simple in character, the most ambitious being the maintenance of a side chapel in the parish church.  A large majority contented themselves with the support of a light to burn perpetually or on special days before the image of a Saint in whose name they were enrolled (see bibliography for a partial listing of gilds in Suffolk).


Gildhalls


The social activities of gilds were originally held inside churches but popular opinion steadily moved against this and special gildhalls were built.  Sometimes a single hall would be used by more than one gild, for example Fressingfield was established late in Henry VII’s reign to remove all “church ales, gilds, yeardays, buryings and other drinkings from the church”.


The passing of religious gilds


By the middle of the reign of Henry VIII there is some evidence that in towns and larger villages the gilds had lost some of their older democratic character.  They were becoming associations from which poorer people were tacitly excluded by reason of their poverty.  Where there were several gilds side by side there was some evidence of social grade determining membership.  To this could be added the turmoil of conflicting religious opinion (noted above under Purgatory and Indulgences) together with, from 1536 onwards, the spoliation of the smaller monasteries.  With all this, men were considering their fate as well as the plate and property of the parish churches and the fraternities located in them.


In 1545 (according to Westlake - or implied as 1547 in Historical Atlas) an act was passed conveying to the king the property of all “colleges, free chapels, chantries, hospitals, fraternities, brotherhoods, gilds and stipendiary priests” although the king died before it could be fully carried out.  Nevertheless, the heyday of the parish gild was over.


Gildhalls were confiscated by the Crown but some remained intact and were bought back by the parish continuing as parish property later to appear as schools or workhouses.


Trade and craft guilds


The Historical Atlas of Suffolk takes a fairly strong line that “The study of these institutions has long been bedevilled by confusion between craft guilds and civic guilds.  Rural Suffolk had no craft or trade gilds, while even in the towns of Bury St Edmunds and Ipswich, at least in the period for which documentary evidence survives, they were the exception rather than the rule.”


Mark Bailey in his “Medieval Suffolk” book outlines some craft guilds of Ipswich and Bury St Edmunds (pp 139 – 141).  He noted that Ipswich had a gild merchant in the 12th Century.  Gilds merchant considered the major issues of urban government, while craft guilds emerged with a specific interest in regulating activity in their particular trade.  In the 12th century the Ipswich gild merchant acted as an informal town government at a time when there were no formal powers of self-government.  When Ipswich acquired those powers through a royal charter of 1200 the role of the gild merchant diminished and it became a socio-religious club for all the burgesses.  Eventually it developed a prominant ceremonial function after its rededication to Corpus Christi in the early 14th century.


In Bury St Edmunds the informal structures of trade and craft guilds were used to organise commercial activity at arms length from the Abbey.  Weavers, linen drapers, bakers and shoemakers (cordwainers) guilds were known to exist, the bakers dating from the 1170s.  The gild merchant of Bury St Edmunds became known as the Candlemas gild by the mid 14th century and grew in power over the next two centuries.   By the end of the 15th century it had sufficient legal standing to allow the burgesses to act as a communal body.  There is evidence of some similar influences in Beccles but othwerwise no others in the authoritative literature.  There is a hint of a craft guild in Sudbury in other material.


Gilds as a foundation of other institutions


Although the parish gilds and gilds merchant were overtaken by events the craft and trade guilds remain to this day.  In the City of London there are 108 Livery Companies that trace their history to gilds: http://www.cityoflondon.gov.uk/Corporation/LGNL_Services/Leisure_and_culture/Local_history_and_heritage/Livery/


Collectively, the early gilds were the source of evolution of parish (and subsequently all local) governance, friendly societies, trades unions, professional bodies and many other aspects of life we now take for granted.



Bibliography:


English Gilds, Toulmin Smith, Early English Text Society, 1870


Two Chapters on the Mediaeval Guilds of England, Edwin R A Seligman, American Economic Association, 1887


Gilds: Their Origin, Constitution, Objects and Later History, Cornelius Walford, Printed for Private Circulation, 1879


Two Thousand Years of Gild Life, Rev J Malet Lambert, 1891


The Spirit of Association, M Fothergill Robinson, John Murray, 1913


The Old Guilds of England, Frederick Armitage, Weare and Co., 1918


The Parish Gilds of Mediaeval England, H F Westlake, SPCK, 1919


Guilds in the Middle Ages, Georges Renard, G Bell and Sons Ltd., 1919


Parish Gilds, pp74/5, An Historical Atlas of Suffolk, David Dymond & Edward Martin, Suffolk County Council and Suffolk Institute of Archeology and History, 1999


Medieval Suffolk, Mark Bailey, The Boydell Press, 2007


A complete listing of articles in PSIAH (see below for its various forms) relating to gilds and guilds


Bloomfield J. and Northeast P., 8 September 1985; Hadleigh Guildhall and town.


Corder, J.S., 1890; The Guild Hall, of Corpus Christi, Lavenham. VII Part 2, 113-119.


Evans, N., 1989, The Holy Ghost Gild and the Beccles Town land feoffees in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. XXXVII Part 1, 31-44.


Farnhill, K., 1995, A late medieval parish gild: the Gild of St Thomas the Martyr in Cratfield, c.1470-1542. XXXVIII Part 3, 261-267.


Fitch, W.S., 1855, Notices of the Corpus Christi Guild, Ipswich. II Part 4, 151-163.


Holland, C.G., 1965, Kelsale Guildhall (with appendix, Extent of the Manor of Kelsale 1480). XXX Part 2, 129-148.


L., H., 1913, Restorations at Lavenham - The GuildHall and The Market Cross. XV Part 1, 82. (A very brief note)


Morley, C., 1926, A check-list of the sacred buildings of Suffolk, to which are added Gilds. XIX Part 2, 168-211.  (I hold a transcription taken from the copy at Suffolk Record Office, Ipswich.  You can download a copy here, it is only a partial listing: even some shown on this site are not listed.  pdf file


Redstone, V.B., 1904, Chapels, Chantries and Gilds in Suffolk. XII Part 1, 1-87.  Has abstracts of 39 gild certificates, 18 in Bury (presumably the 1389 returns).  Also details of Ipswich Corpus Christi gild.


Redstone, V.B., 1937. IV. Extracts from wills and other material, showing the history of Suffolk churches, chantries and guilds (Appendix to article published in Proceedings Vol XII). XXIII Part 1, 50-78.


Statham, M., 1968, The Guildhall, Bury St. Edmunds. XXXI Part 2, 117-157.


Warren, F.E., 1901, Gild of S. Peter in Bardwell: entries referring to the Gild of St Peter, Churchwardens' account re Church of SS. Peter and Paul in Bardwell, and Townwardens' accounts re "Town" or "Charity Estate" in Bardwell - from an old MS Volume in Bardwell Parish Church. XI Part 1, 81-133.


Warren, F.E., 1901, A pre-Reformation village gild. XI Part 1, 134-147.  Follows on from previous reference and is about Bardwell.


Westlake, H.F., 1921, The origin, purposes, and development of Parish Gilds in England. XVII Part 3, 163-174.


Evolution of PSIAH


1845-1848:  Suffolk Archaeological Association


1848-1853:  Bury and West Suffolk Institute of Archaeology


1853-1868:  Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and Natural History, and Bury Athenaeum


1869-1954:  Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and Natural History


1954-1975/6:  Suffolk Institute of Archaeology


1977-2000:  Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and History





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A - Z of Suffolk Guildhalls


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